GSA's Green Office Buildings
A recent report by CoStar, a major real estate transaction information collection company, shows that green buildings, in general, also have lower vacancy rates. According to the 2008 McGraw-Hill Construction SmartMarket Report Key Trends in the European and U.S. Construction Marketplace, operating costs for green buildings are on average 8% to 9% lower, building values are 7.5% higher, buildings have a 3.5% greater occupancy ratio, and green buildings provide a 6.6% total return on investment.
With the above mentioned long-term operating cost benefits, the life cycle cost of green buildings is lower than the life cycle costs of those that are not. Even the initial capital costs are not necessarily higher, and when they are, only marginally so. A 2007 study by Davis Langdon shows that green building aspects tend to have a lesser impact on costs than other building decisions, such as which kind of finishes and amenities the building might provide (Lisa Fay Mathiesson and Peter Morris, "The Cost of Green Revisited").
Sustainable design is not just about cost. Good sustainable design offers economic, environmental and societal benefits. A planted or "green" roof, for example, can have significant economic benefits, by lowering the roof temperature and thereby reducing the amount of cooling tonnage needed, and even lowering costs for neighboring buildings. A planted roof can reduce the environmental impact of a building, by reducing pollution from the building's power usage, as well as reducing the city's heat island effect.
Another environmental benefit of planted roofs is reduced storm water runoff. In cities like Washington DC, which has a combined storm water and sewer system, this reduces water pollution, both locally and downstream in Chesapeake Bay. Finally, societal benefits include physically and aesthetically pleasing effects for building occupants and neighbors, and jobs for workers to install and maintain planted roofs.
The careful use of materials can reduce energy consumption during the manufacturing process and protect the health of occupants. Careful construction techniques can reduce the amount of construction waste that reaches landfills by 95% or more. Reuse of existing structures can reduce resource consumption while preserving our country's heritage.
Careful siting can make buildings perform better from both environmental and human perspectives: proximity to transportation reduces pollution and improves occupants' quality of life. The key is holistic, integrated consideration of all the factors that influence building, including consideration of the decision of whether to build at all.
There has been a lot of focus on sustainable design. For example, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT 05) requires buildings to be designed to be 30 percent better than the current energy code. Design is important; without it we cannot achieve the country's energy goals. We need, however, to have at least as much emphasis on actual building performance.
California is contemplating standard building performance labeling as a prerequisite for every real estate transaction, and beginning in 2010, GSA will required new building leases over 10,000 square feet (930 square meters) to have an Energy Star rating, earned in the most recent year of operation (except in cases where the tenant stays in the same building, or where the market does not provide a building that meets the agency's functional needs, or if the lease is in a historic building; these exceptions are in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, sec. 435). The value of an Energy Star rating is that is an ongoing performance measure.
We also need to expand our measures. Today we typically concentrate on energy use in the building. Buildings exist in context, though; they are parts of neighborhoods, communities and cities. They are also tools for businesses and organizations. One of the key policy changes of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) was to clearly articulate that a high-performance green building must not just perform well mechanically, but must also perform to improve the health and enhance the performance of the occupants.
A key broad measure of environmental impact is greenhouse gas, or GHG, emissions. Once you measure the collective effects of greenhouse gas production by an organization — with buildings as components — you can make more informed decisions and tradeoffs.
We need to look at the way we buy materials for the building, travel to and from the building, the way we use the building, and how the building is operating. When we look at both what the building is doing, and what is happening inside the building, we can make even better improvements than looking at the building alone.
We have found, for example, that when we involve the tenants in building retrofit projects, we discover changes in their operations that can increase energy savings by as much as 50%, and also lower the tenants' cost of operations. In some cases this can actually lower the cost of renovation as well.
The federal government can, through its example, influence and accelerate the adoption of sustainable building practices across the country. And we can help do that through publicizing the quantitative results.
GSA received $4.5 billion to modernize existing federal buildings and begin converting GSA assets to High Performance Green Buildings as defined by EISA. The increased transparency of Recovery Act transactions, and reporting on results, are key to that influence.
Creation of Green Jobs
The jobs created across the design, engineering, manufacturing, construction and operations industries will bolster the "green economy." These jobs will provide practical experience in high-performance technologies, green construction and building operations.
GSA has identified over 50 different trades and professions that will participate in the accomplishment of GSA building projects. While it may seem that some aspects of construction are unaffected by new technologies, we find that virtually all are changed in some way by the application of the principles of sustainable buildings and delivery.
For example, in demolition work, we take particular care to ensure that materials are reused, and recycled, and we have avoided 95% of the traditional construction waste on several of our projects. Even such work as sheet metal work — installing air ducts in buildings — is affected, because we are requiring better work quality to reduce energy losses through leaks.
Several areas are dramatically changed. Our use of integrated photovoltaic solar power systems (PV) increases manufacturing of this technology and reduces reliance on fossil fuels. Installation of PV requires special skills that are a part of the green economy.
Lighting systems and controls have improved dramatically over the past ten years. We will be replacing old lighting systems with new ones, which are based on a much better understanding of the needs of people in modern working conditions, capture more daylight, and provide better working conditions, but use less energy.
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This article is an excerpt of testimony given by Kevin Kampschroer before the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings, and Emergency Management, on July 16, 2009.